Online Medical Dictionary

Letter V

Inflammation of the vagina induced by infection, estrogen imbalance, allergen, or other foreign irritant such as a retained condom or tampon. Vaginitis symptoms may include the secretion of discharge, pain or itch. Treatment is dependent on the cause of the vaginitis, but most commonly involves the application of a topical anti-fungal, antibiotic, cortisone or antibacterial cream, or a combination of these.
Vagus Nerve
A lengthy cranial nerve that, upon exiting the medulla, extends through the jugular foramen, the cartoid sheath, head, neck, and chest before reaching the abdomen. The vagus nerve functions to submit sensory information from the organs to the central nervous system, as well as innervating the stomach and lungs. Also termed the pneumogastric nerve.
Variant Angina
A condition inducing chest pain during times of rest due to contractions occurring in the smooth muscles of vessel walls, which narrow the coronary arteries, producing vasospasm. Calcium channel blockers and nitrates may be implemented in treatment course. Also termed angina inversa and Prinzmetal angina.
Varicella Immunization
Immunization against the infection of chickenpox.
Varicella Rash
The typical rash induced by the chickenpox, or varicella zoster, virus.
Varicose Veins
Veins that have become tortuous (twisted) and enlarged, causing the vein's leaflets, which keep blood pumping toward the heart, from functioning appropriately. This dysfunction means that blood is pumped in a retrograde fashion, causing bulge. Vericose veins appear most commonly in the leg, but can occur anywhere in the body. Cause associated with developing varicose veins include genetic factors, obesity, long durations spent standing, injury, strain and pregnancy, thus the higher propensity for females to develop varicose veins than men. Varicose veins can usually be treated by conservative methods, such as implementation of specific exercise and bracing stockings, though in some cases surgical ablation and open surgery to remove all or a portion of the vein's main trunk is performed.
Regarding the blood vessels, which compose the vascular or circulatory system of the body.
Vascular Dementia
Cognitive impairment as a result of various condition-induced vascular lesions occurring in the brain. Also termed multi-infarct dementia. Vascular dementia seconds Alzheimer's disease as the most common form of dementia affecting aging adults. Treatment aims at preventing further vascular lesions from developing and managing psychological and behavioural effects.
A condition classified by its bodily location or cause: infection, rheumatic disease, cancer or chemical exposure. Vasculitis refers to the destruction of blood vessels, of arteries or veins, due to inflammation, usually incited by leukocyte migration. Treatment aims at inhibiting the immune system from causing this leukocyte response, and in managing the inflammation it causes.
A surgical procedure conducted to halt sperm entering the seminal stream by severing he male vasa deferentia.
The narrowing of blood vessels, as resulting from the contraction of the blood vessel's muscular wall. Vasoconstriction may occur in veins, arteries or arterioles. Vasoconstriction may occur naturally, as to retain body temperature, manage hemorrhage or states of shock, or in response to certain medications. Substances inducing vasoconstriction are termed vasopressors or vasoconstrictors. When vasoconstriction is taking place, the flesh may appear pale and the pupils dilated.
Venae Cavae
The superior and inferior veins (vena cava) functioning to return from the body deoxygentated blood back to to the right auricle of the heart.
Venereal Disease
A term now commonly more referred to as a sexually transmitted infection.
May refer to the heart vetricles, the heart's left and right chambers; the brains's ventricular system, composed of four ventricles; the laryngeal ventricle; or the stomach.
Regarding the ventricles of the heart, brain or larynx.
Ventricular Arrhythmias
See Arrhythmia. Also termed cardiac dysrhythmia, irregular electrical heart activity.
Vertebral Column
The spine or the backbone, composed of 33 vertebrae held together by intervertebral discs, serving to support and protect the spinal chord, spinal column and brain, as well as allowing the motion of the back.
A tiny, infectious microorganism, seeking residence in the cells of living organisms in order to replicate and spread. Vaccination remains one of the best preventative measures against the development of many of the infections induced by viruses, while treatment of such infections is commonly attained through a course of antiviral medication.
Regarding the viscera, the internal body organs.
Voice box
See Larynx.
Vrolik Disease
Osteogenesis imperfecta, also referred to as brittle bone disease or Ekman-Lobstein syndrome, a congential disease of the bones. Affected individuals are usually born with a deficiency in Type-1 collagen, impeding or disabling the body from producing connective tissue. Treatment varies based on the type of osteogenesis imperfecta, with type 1 being the most common, though all treatment aims at increasing bone strength and preventing bone injury. Treatment methods range from physical therapy to the surgical implementation of bone reinforcements.
The external genital organs of the female, including the labia clitoris, and vulval vestibule.
Inflammation of the vulva, usually incited by infection such as yeast infection, or vaginitis (also termed vulvovaginitis).